Midwest Archaeological Conference 2003: Abstracts

HYATT REGENCY HOTEL
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
October 16-19, 2003

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Cynthia Adkins (Michigan State University)
Evidence for Corn Agriculture in Southwestern Michigan? New Botanical Evidence from Moccasin Bluff

Although Moccasin Bluff is often cited as an agricultural village, research on the question of when and how corn agriculture was incorporated into the local subsistence cycle in southwestern Michigan remains unclear. Botanical evidence gathered during the 2002 field season suggest that other resources were probably more important to Late Woodland/Upper Mississippian peoples at the site.

(Moccasin Bluff Revisted)

Daniel Amick (Loyola University Chicago) and Deborah Jacobs (Loyola University Chicago)
Spatial Patterning and Site Formation Processes at the Prehistoric Bluff Deposits near the Macktown Shell Midden in Northern Illinois

Excavations by Loyola University Chicago (1998-2000) exposed 40 square meters on the bluff slope adjacent to extensive prehistoric shell middens along the Middle Rock River. Artifacts reveal repeated use of this place with intense occupations beginning during the Late Archaic/Early Woodland. By creating artifact density maps we have attempted to distinguish and define discrete activity areas. Primary activities included mussel steaming and lithic manufacturing. Dumping secondary refuse from domestic activities complicates these patterns. Extensive bioturbation and intrusive pit digging also hindered feature identification. High-resolution density mapping helped confirm known features and recognize others not readily apparent in the field.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

John B. Anderton (Northern Michigan University)
Interpretations of the Geoarchaeological Context of Grand Island, Michigan

Interpretations of the geoarchaeological context of Grand Island, Michigan have been a critical part of prehistoric archaeological investigations. Geoarchaeological investigations have generally focused on determining the age of various geomorphic surfaces, interpreting site settings, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Although no Paleo-Indian materials have yet been found, the island was available for human occupation following deglaciation sometime after 11,000 BP. High lake levels during the Nipissing Phase (ca. 5000-4000 BP) built a series of coastal landforms that were heavily used by Archaic Period people. Post-Nipissing fluctuations in lake levels presented a highly variable coastal setting for Woodland Period people.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Mark L. Anderson and Dan G. Horgen (University of Iowa-Office of the State Archaeologist)
The Lithic Raw Material Assemblage at the University of Iowa's Office of the State Archaeologist: An Improved Framework for Lithic Analysis

The UI-OSA lithic raw material assemblage encompasses over 250 in-state samples. Multiple structural shortcomings had limited the efficacy of making cultural inferences regarding prehistoric use. The assemblage has been reorganized to align with the geologic column of Iowa, represent geo-physical regions, and to afford a more systematic and consistent approach to lithic identification. The entire project has been oriented toward providing this data through a web-based lithic resource page. Lastly, this paper summarizes analytical tools in addition to the existing macroscopic identification key that may be applied to the assemblage for improved future use.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois (Symposium) 
Douglas Kullen (Allied Archeology)

Ongoing cultural resource compliance investigations in the Chicago hinterland have unearthed important information regarding Archaic and Woodland Period cultures in a part of the Midwest where little empirical data from these prehistoric periods has been previously reported. Papers in this symposium address a variety of issues, including chert usage, point styles, site catchment, and intra- and inter-site settlement patterning.



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Jonathan D. Baker and Wendy K. Holtz-Leith
The Ambrough Slough Shell Midden (47Cr650), Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin

Excavations at the Ambrough Slough Shell Midden, during the fall of 2002, revealed two discrete shell lenses. Radiocarbon dates and diagnostic ceramics indicate a Late Woodland occupation. The site is indicative of an intensive shellfish harvest that is consistent with a pattern logistic exploitation. A sample of 7,000 freshwater mussel valves revealed a species assemblage fairly consistent with those from other prehistoric middens in the area. However, several species indicate that the mussels may have been harvested from a more unique aquatic environment. The mussel population from the area appears to have been quite stable and previously unexploited.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Timothy E. Baumann (University of Missouri-St. Louis), Brett Rogers, and Alex Miller
Oak Grove: A Plantation Study in Missouri's Little Dixie Region

This paper summarizes an interdisciplinary project that combines both historical and archaeological studies to examine the lives of Missouri's enslaved African-American citizens at the Oak Grove plantation. The Oak Grove plantation site is located in Missouri's "Little Dixie" region, which was primarily populated by Upper South immigrants, who utilized enslaved African-Americans in a diversified agricultural system with cash crops of hemp and tobacco. The Oak Grove plantation was started by George Murrell, an immigrant from Barron County, Kentucky, and was operated with 13 slaves. The 2003 summer excavations focused on a two-room slave quarters located immediately behind the main house.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Historic Archaeology)

Brenda Beck (ITARP-UIUC), Ian Fricker (ITARP), and Madeleine Evans
The Hoxie Farm Lithic Assemblage

Recent investigations at the Hoxie Farm site resulted in a substantial lithic assemblage including a large number of diagnostic artifacts, domestic materials, and non-utilitarian items. Two distinct areas characterize the site within our project limits: a discrete fortified village and a dense occupation area, which may incorporate multiple components. This paper, although preliminary in nature, provides a basic description of the assemblage. It compares the two areas of the site with each other and with other regional late prehistoric sites with regard to the stone material recovered.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Jeffery A. Behm (Department of Religious Studies and Anthropology
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh)
Historic Native American Ceramics From the Bell Site

The Bell Site (47-Wn-9) is the location of the Grand Village of the Meskwaki between 1680 and 1730. Based on the ceramics from his 1959 salvage excavations Warren Wittry (1963) defined two provisional types: Bell Type I, the more numerous forms clearly associated with the Meskwaki; and Bell II, present in much smaller numbers and subsequently associated with the Potawatomi. The 1999-1998 University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh excavations have greatly expanded the ceramic assemblage from the site. Bell I is much more diverse than Wittry recognized. Bell II is surprisingly homogeneous. Other historic and presumed historic ceramics are also present.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)

Elizabeth D. Benchley (University of West Florida)
The Trout Point I Site, Grand Island, Michigan

The Trout Point I Site was excavated by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1986 under contract with the Hiawatha National Forest. The site lies 20 m above a quartzite cobble beach which provided the raw materials for the site's stone tool assemblage. The site consisted of a pavement of flaking debris and fire cracked rock. No structures or pit features were found. Over 1400 quartzite flakes and cores, but no bifaces or temporally diagnostic tools, were found. TL dates on fire-cracked rock suggest a date of about 2300 BP, which may be terminal Late Archaic in the region.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

David W. Benn (Bear Creek Archeology, Inc.)
Decorative Types and the Oneota Culinary Assemblage

Decorative types and vessel shapes are summarized for two Oneota assemblages: the Wever site (13LE110) in southeastern Iowa and the Christenson site (13PK407) in the Central Des Moines River valley. Decorative motifs are reconstructed to show that they represent, for the most part, the "quartered circle" style of the Mississippian period. Vessel shapes are reconstructed to illustrate a potential range of vessel functions. Little correlation is found between potential function (shape) and decorative.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Alice Berkson (Public Service Archaeological Program, The University of Illinois)
Kickapoo of the Prairie: Still Elusive After All These Years

Two Illinois locations occupied by the Prairie Kickapoo in the late eighteenth to early nineteenth century, the Grand Village of the Kickapoo in McLean County (11ML5 and 11ML21) and the Rhoads site in Logan County (11LO8), were excavated in the 1970s and 1980s. A review of published information on the sites, and the scant ethnohistorical accounts of the Prairie Kickapoo reinforce the view that traditional subsistence methods persisted, as they did for other Native Americans. If we can move beyond the frustrations of ethnohistorical information, it can continue to provide insight and inspiration for interpretations of archaeological data.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Thomas Berres (Northern Illinois University) and Jarrod Burks
The Significance of Geophysical Survey on CRM Projects: A Report on the Nineteenth Century J. C. Scofield (11KE407) Site

The J. C. Scofield (11KE407) site is a nineteenth century farmstead located in Kendall County, northeastern Illinois. This paper will highlight the utility of a geophysical survey on this site and correlate it with the features and controlled surface collections. A fluxgate gradiometer was used to precisely locate four features including two cellars, one well, and one cistern. The Phase II excavations of one cellar belonging to John C. Scofield, a prominent citizen of early Kendall County, revealed a variety of artifacts including buttons, ceramics, glassware, and kaolin pipe fragments dating to the early 1800s.

 

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Colin Betts (Luther College)
Protohistoric Oneota Mound Construction: An Early Revitalization Movement

Oneota groups inhabiting northeastern and northwestern Iowa embarked on a renewed program of mound building in the 17th and 18th centuries, on a scale unseen since the Woodland period. An explanation for this florescence of mound construction can be found in the symbolic meaning of mound ceremonialism and the impact of European diseases in the region. Like the later Ghost Dance, it is posited that protohistoric mound construction represents an early revitalization movement stimulated by a preceding period of extreme population loss.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Robert A. Birmingham (Wisconsin Historical Society)
"Jesuit" Rings from the Belle

Texas Historical Commission excavations of the famous La Salle wreck the Belle, off the coast of Texas, yielded a time capsule of trade items available in North America in the 1680s. Among these are over 1500 "Jesuit Rings" of representing 13 styles, the largest assemblage of such objects ever recovered. This paper examines the styles and iconography of the rings, discussing implications for northern fur trade studies and decorative brass ring research.

(Maritime Archaeology)

Dustin Blodgett (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) and 
Daniel McGuire Winkler (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Lithic Materials of Wisconsin

During the spring of 2003, a project was undertaken to collect samples of the lithic material types that were utilized by prehistoric peoples in Wisconsin. The first objective of the project was to create a comparative collection of lithic material for use within the archaeology laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The second was to describe and document each of the raw material types and create a guide to assist others in their identification. Experiments involving thermal alteration of the materials were also conducted to provide comparative samples of both treated and unaltered materials.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

Donald Booth (ITARP), Chuck Moffat (ITARP-American Bottom Survey Division), and Kellie DeFosset
Recent Investigations at the Janey B. Goode Site (11S1232), St. Clair County, Illinois

Recent archaeological investigations associated with the New Mississippi River Bridge from East St. Louis to St. Louis have revealed a large, well-preserved site on the former banks of the Horseshoe Lake meander. Phase III fieldwork at the site, known as Janey B. Goode (11S1232), has yielded evidence of occupation covering a six hectare area spanning from Patrick phase Late Woodland through the Moorehead phase of Mississippian. This paper provides a glimpse at some of the highlights and a general summary of our work from the last two field seasons at this unique site.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Quentina Borgic (ITARP) and Bryon Barth
The Late Woodland and Mississippian Occupations at the Lillie Site (11MS662)

The Lillie site is a late prehistoric blufftop settlement near Wood River. Excavations in advance of highway construction for the FAP-310 Project uncovered clusters of nearly 100 Late Woodland (Patrick and Sponemann phases) pits and an early Mississippian (Lohmann phase) farmstead, represented by a single wall-trench structure and several associated pits. In this paper, a preliminary evaluation of these two components is presented. The Late Woodland component is noteworthy in that several pits held human remains, a rarity for this time period in the American Bottom region.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Tamira Brennan (ITARP) and Charles R. Moffat (ITARP-American Bottom Survey Division)
The Quicksilver Site: A Mississippian Homestead in the Silver Creek Headwaters

The Quicksilver site (11MS1992) is located on a small upland knoll overlooking the East Fork of Silver Creek. Complete excavation of the site in advance of bridge work uncovered three wall trench structures and associated pit features. Patterns of rebuilding and feature superimpositioning suggest multiple occupations. Four radiocarbon dates range from 920+/-70 B.P. to 840+/-70 B.P. The ceramics are generally similar to those of Lohmann, Stirling, and Morehead phases in the American Bottom.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

John Broihahn (Wisconsin Historical Society)
Wisconsin Pipestones: An Overview

American Indians, archaeologists, anthropologists, and geologists have identified ten pipestone sources in Wisconsin. These sources stretch from the Baraboo Hills in central Wisconsin to the shores of Lake Superior and from the banks of the St. Croix to the shores of Lake Michigan. Red, black, purple, tan/red, white, and banded pipestones have been reported. During the course of the Office of the State Archaeologist - Pipestone Project, quarry pits have been identified at three sites and artifacts and raw material samples have been associated with four locations. The most extensive outcrops are those of Barron Hills Pipestone in northwestern Wisconsin.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

Amanda Burke (Illinois State University)
Making an Exhibit: A Case Study in Archaeological Interpretation

Since Grand Island became part of the Hiawatha National Forest, archaeologists have investigated numerous sites that date from 4000 BP to the early 20th century. Many visitors to the island are unaware of the investigations undertaken to explore indigenous habitation of the island. To educate these visitors, I am designing an exhibit based on archaeological evidence. The exhibit narrative begins with interpretations of prehistoric sites to provide information about the traditional lifeways. Building upon this foundation, the content of the exhibit follows the changes in indigenous culture precipitated by the fur trade, arrival of Euro-American settlers, and industrial development.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)



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Leighann Calentine (University of Illinois/ITARP)
An Overview of the Archaeology of the Danville, IL Area

Little is known about the prehistory of Vermilion County, IL. Recent archaeological investigations by ITARP personnel for a proposed beltline around the city of Danville, IL yielded substantial additional knowledge of the area. Approximately 250 prehistoric sites and isolated finds were identified as a result of pedestrian survey in agricultural fields. Although artifacts from nearly every time period were identified, the majority of sites could be categorized as either Early Archaic or Late Prehistoric. This paper will focus on the patterns of regional interaction that can be inferred from the surface collected data.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Dillon Carr (University of Western Ontario)
The Skemp Site (47-Lc-480): Implications for The Late Paleoindian Occupation in the Driftless Area of Western Wisconsin

The Skemp Site (47-Lc-480) is a campsite located in the Driftless Area of western Wisconsin. Multi-year surface collections of the site by Sam Skemp Jr. have produced a sizeable lithic assemblage that includes 20 Late Paleoindian projectile points and point fragments related to the Agate Basin complex. While test excavations during the fall of 2000 determined that the site is largely contained within a disturbed plow zone context, analysis of surface collected materials in the Skemp collection has implications concerning the Late Paleoindian stage and contributes to our understanding of the Late Paleoindian occupation of the Driftless Area within a larger regional context.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Melinda L. Carter (ITARP-UIUC)
Late Woodland Mortuary Practices in the American Bottom: Evidence from the Lillie Site

The Late Woodland period in Illinois represents a time of social change that is reflected in dramatic differences in burial treatment. In contrast to later Mississippian times, there is limited evidence of how Late Woodland peoples in the American Bottom region disposed of their dead. The mortuary archaeology of the Lillie site (11MS662) hints at an explanation for regional Late Woodland mortuary behavior. The combination of poor preservation, cremation, and incomplete secondary disposal might explain the general absence of Late Woodland burials in the region.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

James A. Clark, Jr. (Center For Archaeological Research, Marquette University) and David F. Overstreet (Center For Archaeological Research, Marquette University)
Summary Report: Fieldwork at the Boss' Tavern Locality of the Fabry Creek Site (47DR107), Door County, Wisconsin

Excavations at the Boss' Tavern locality of the Fabry Creek Site (47DR107) near Dykesville, Wisconsin have identified six components. The most recent is a 20th century bottle dump from the tavern operations. Five prehistoric components include, in descending temporal order: Mero Complex (Oneota); (2) North Bay (I & II) Middle (Initial) Woodland; (3) Agate Basin-related Late Paleoindian; (4) Unidentified Paleoindian I; and (5) Unidentified Paleoindian II. Assuming the lacustrine sediments in which Paleoindian I and II occur are underlain by the Glenmore till, these components are younger than 12,000 BP but older than 10,000 BP.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Jody A. Clauter (UWM- Historic Resource Management Services) and
John D. Richards (UWM- Historic Resource Management Services)
Out of Time and Out of Place: The North Bay Component at the Beaudhuin Village Site (47DR432), Door County, Wisconsin

Excavations at the Beaudhuin Village site (47DR432) recovered a variety of North Bay Middle Woodland data sets including lithics, ceramics, faunal and floral remains, structural data on community organization and chronological information. Site location is intriguing because the inland setting is atypical of previously documented North Bay settlements. North Bay dates span cal 1335 BC to AD 425 but problematic stratigraphy or lack of reported contexts from pre-A.D. assays has led Ronald Mason to argue for a post A.D. 1 temporal range. However, a date of cal 790-410 BC from North Bay contexts at DR432 may support an earlier chronology.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Robert Cook (Michigan State University) and Jeff Door
To Build or Not to Build? Comparing Physical and Virtual Reconstruction of Fort Ancient Architecture

Two methods of reconstructing archaeological sites are used with some frequency-the physical building of architectural remains and the virtual creation of these same features. This poster and accompanying interactive CD-ROM compare the utility of both approaches as they have been applied at the SunWatch site, a single-component Fort Ancient village abandoned ca. A.D. 1400. Physical reconstruction has produced much experimental data, whereas virtual reconstruction has recently enabled exploration of broader spatial patterning within the site. These two approaches to exploring prehistoric architecture are seen as complementary, and the usefulness of each method for informing archaeological research will be presented.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

James Cummings (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources)
Seeking Balance: Sensitive Resources and Public Recreation

Located in Minnesota's lake country, Mille Lacs Kathio State Park is a popular recreation destination. It is also the location of more than a century of archaeological research. Within the park's original campground are cemetery "burial mounds." To preserve these cultural resources while continuing to provide recreation access to the public, a decade-long effort was begun to develop a management prescription and find alternate space for public camping. This undertaking included the involvement of park planners, archaeologists, biologists, representatives of Dakota and Ojibwe communities and the public. Open dialog, mutual respect and compromise resulted in more than a new campground.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)



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Stephanie Daniels (ITARP)
The Lithic Assemblage from an Urban Ritual Center

Ongoing investigations at the East St. Louis site provide us with an opportunity to examine the lithic assemblage from a large urban ritual center. The East St. Louis site lithic assemblage gives evidence of both domestic and ceremonial activity at the Stirling Phase. The lithic assemblage includes common Mississippian tools, unusual specialized tools and exotic materials. The lithic assemblage will be compared to domestic and ritual assemblages in the greater Cahokia Region.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Brian G. DelCastello (ITARP) and Donald L. Booth (ITARP)
ITARP Investigations at the A.E. Harmon Site

The A.E. Harman site (11MS136) is a large multicomponent blufftop habitation area near Edwardsville. Excavations in 2000 in advance of a road-widening project along the southern edge of the site revealed the presence of 31 Late Woodland and Mississippian features. The majority of these features are Terminal Late Woodland (Lake Bluff Tradition) pits. This paper presents preliminary analysis results and places the site within a regional context.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Randy Robert Dickson (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Archaeological Survey: Probability, Problems and Plowed Contexts

The efficacy and probability of site detection and subsequent determination of site boundaries through artifact encounter via shovel testing has long been a hotly debated topic among archaeologists. The employment of shovel testing is a balancing act of sorts. What does one want to find and what degree of confidence does one need that they have accomplished this. This study attempts to establish a probability of detection for hypothetical archaeological sites of three different artifact frequencies in both clustered and uniform-random artifact distributions. Results demonstrate, in a plowed context, shovel testing outperforms surface survey for detecting low-density archaeological sites.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

Jennifer Dockery and Joseph M. Galloy (ITARP-University of Illinois)
Late Woodland and Mississippian Settlements Overlooking Pittsburg Lake in the American Bottoms

Recent investigations for a proposed visitor's center on the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi floodplain have yielded new information about Late Woodland and Mississippian settlement dynamics. The Late Woodland settlements revealed by these investigations include a small Rosewood phase occupation at the Patti Will site (11S654) and a larger Patrick phase settlement at the Edging site (11S658). The Mississippian occupations include a Lohmann/Stirling phase nodal community at Edging and a Sand Prairie phase farmstead at Patti Will. The Mississippian occupations are of special interest because they document marked shifts in community and political organization.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

John F. Doershuk (Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa), Richard L. Fishel (Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, The University of Illinois), and Cynthia L. Peterson (Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa)
The Northeast Iowa Neutral Ground: Identifying 1840s Native and Euro American Archaeological Components

Recent University of Iowa archaeological investigations near Fort Atkinson, Iowa involved intensive sampling at a number of sites. Archival research suggested these were likely places where 1840s-era Native and possibly Euro American deposits could be found. In the 1840s, Fort Atkinson served as a major hub within the so-called "Neutral Ground" established by the US Government as a relocation area for Wisconsin Ho-Chunk. Archaeological fieldwork yielded large artifact assemblages that contain copious 1840s material. This paper discusses the challenges we have encountered in our attempts to identify native vs. non-native components at these sites.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Robert Donahue (Duluth Archaeology Center)
Site Formation at the Jim Regan Site (21SL875), A Folsom Site in Northeast Minnesota

The Jim Regan Site is located on a small bench north of Virginia, Minnesota. The base of a Folsom point was found in a shovel test during a Phase I survey. A team from the UMD Archaeometry Laboratory and the USFS excavated an adjacent unit complex. Numerous lithic debitage as well as a possible anvil stone were uncovered. Sediment analysis included profiles and baulk and core samples. Analysis of soil profiles, organic carbon, and grain size suggest a possible feature, a site that is mostly undisturbed, and that the Folsom point is part of an in situ deposit.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Eric C. Drake (Binghamton University) and
Sean B. Dunham (Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group)
The Woodland Period Occupation of Grand Island, Michigan: An Archaeological Overview

This paper will discuss Woodland period (ca. AD 0-1700) patterns of settlement and subsistence in the Upper Great Lakes region from the vantage point of Grand Island, Michigan. Sites become larger and technological innovations such as ceramics and new tools for fishing are added to the material assemblages during the Woodland period. The results of recent archaeological field work on the island will be summarized and interpreted in the context of local and regional trends. The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning future directions for Woodland period research in the island and in the region.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Sean B. Dunham (Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group)
Archaeological Testing at the Stone Quarry Cottage Site, Grand Island, Michigan

Archaeological testing was recently conducted at the Stone Quarry Cottage Site on Grand Island, Michigan. The site is a mid-nineteenth century homestead situated on the shore of Lake Superior. The recent rehabilitation of the cabin by the Forest Service allowed the placement of archaeological excavation units within the footprint of the cabin. The archaeological investigation revealed a pattern of artifact deposition that suggested the cabin was well maintained prior to 1870 and, perhaps, more neglected after this date. This paper will outline the results of the archaeological testing and offer a discussion concerning the interpretation of the site.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Patrick Durst (ITARP-University of Illinois)
The Reilley and Bay Pony Sites: A Preliminary Look at Two Adjacent Late Woodland Blufftop Settlements

The Reilley (11MS27) and Bay Pony (11MS477) sites are situated on the blufftop overlooking the American Bottom near Wood River. Both sites share portions of the same landform and were excavated prior to highway construction for the FAP-310 project. While artifacts recovered indicate that both sites have multiple components, more than 700 Late Woodland (Patrick and Sponemann phases) and Terminal Late Woodland (Lake Bluff Tradition) features were located and excavated. In this paper, preliminary assessment of these components is offered.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)



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Kathryn C. Egan-Bruhy (CCRG) and Mary Simon (ITARP)
Preliminary Analysis of the Hoxie Farm Flora

As part of the ongoing analysis of the Hoxie Farm Site (11CK4), flotation samples from approximately 50 Upper Mississippian features have been analyzed. These features are located both inside and outside the fortified village and may, therefore, provide information relevant to the occupational chronology of the site. Further, this preliminary data set is compared with the Oak Forest Site (11CK53) to elucidate our understanding of the poorly defined late prehistoric settlement/subsistence system in the Chicago region.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Thomas Emerson (University of Illinois), Amy Wilkinson, and Kjersti E. Emerson (University of Illinois-ITARP)
A Preliminary Review of the Late Prehistoric Hoxie Farm Ceramic Assemblage

The typological, chronological, and cultural identification of late prehistoric and protohistoric ceramics of northern Illinois has been difficult. Many ceramic collections were recovered from excavations conducted prior to implementation of scientific recording procedures or in salvage situations. The large collection of ceramic materials from the ITARP Hoxie excavations provides a unique opportunity to examine a large body of pottery from in situ deposits associated with the fortified village, longhouses, and midden/pit clusters. The evidence from these materials give archaeologists an opportunity to reflect on the Fisher-Huber ceramic sequence that has been the prevailing model of late prehistoric ceramic evolution.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Thomas Emerson (University of Illinois) and
Douglas Jackson (ITARP-UIUC)
Hoxie Farm and the Late Prehistoric of Northern Illinois

Our understanding of the late prehistory of Illinois has long been hampered by a lack of archaeological data. The information from the small number of sites from this period was often recovered under salvage conditions resulting in inadequate contextual and provenienced data. Hoxie, with its multiple architectural styles, diverse village organizations, and large material culture assemblages provides us an opportunity to re-evaluate our understanding of late prehistoric ethnogenesis, population movements, cultural relations, and social and political organization at this critical time on the protohistoric edge of native history.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Thomas E. Emerson (University of Illinois) and Andrew C. Fortier (University of Illinois, Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program)
The New Mississippi River Crossing Project in the American Bottom: Historical Overview and Preliminary Findings

For more than a decade the Illinois Department of Transportation has sponsored archaeological investigations in connection to the New Mississippi River Crossing Project, a proposed bridge and interstate construction project that will impact portions of the East St. Louis Mound Center and all of the Jamey B. Goode (JBG) site, a large multi-component occupation located at the northern limits of the ESTL mound center. This paper and symposium provide an historical overview and preliminary assessment of multi-year University of Illinois investigations at both the ESTL and JBG sites. New light is shed on the development of the little-known ESTL Mound Center.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Everybody Loves Ramey: Terminal Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian Ceramics from the Northern Hinterlands (Roundtable)
Robert Boszhardt (University of Wisconsin-La Crosse)

This show and tell workshop will feature ceramic assemblages from various Terminal Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian components in the northern hinterlands. Localities/sites represented will include Apple River (Chapman, Lundy, etc.), the American Bottom, Aztalan, Cambria, Red Wing (Bryan, Diamond Bluff, Silvernale), the Bell Site, Fred Edwards, Gottschall Rockshelter, Hartley Fort and other eastern Iowa sites (Webster, Union Bench), Mill Creek and other Plains periphery (Broken Kettle, Chan-ya-ta, Dodd, Paul Brane, etc.), northern Wisconsin's Lakes District (Robinson), La Crosse (Iva), Stoddard (Fisher Mounds), and Trempealeau (Stull, Squier Garden).



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Peter W. Fantle (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services)
The Christoff Site (47-Dr-251): Excavations at a Late Woodland Campsite in Door County, Wisconsin

The Christoff Site (47DR251) harbors an undisturbed Hein's Creek Late Woodland component. This assemblage appears to represent a pure Late Woodland occupation that should help to illuminate Hein's Creek lifeways in the southern portion of the Hein's Creek range. This paper provides a preliminary overview of the completed fieldwork.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Fred A. Finney
Excavations at an Early Late Woodland Site in Central Ohio

ASC Group, Inc. conducted a Phase III data recovery at site 33Fr560 in Franklin County, Ohio, in 2002. A total of 84 pit features were identified at the base of the plow zone. Virtually all pits held only a limited quantity of cultural materials. It is postulated that many pits functioned in the preparation of food resources, i.e., tubers, from the nearby wetlands along the Scioto River. Diagnostic lithic artifacts from Early, Middle, and Late Woodland are present. However, the ceramic assemblage and three radiocarbon dates indicate the pits represent an early Late Woodland occupation.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Richard L. Fishel (Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, The University of Illinois)
Searching for Senachwine

Early 19th century Historic Indian sites in the Midwest are notoriously difficult to identify from surface assemblages and can be easily confused with EuroAmerican settlements of the same time period. Investigations conducted by the Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, The University of Illinois, in advance of proposed improvements to Illinois Route 29 along the Illinois River between Chillicothe and Interstate 180 provided the opportunity to search for a village of Senachwine, a Potawatomi chief from 1815 to 1831. One possible location of this village, 11PM62, was subjected to Phase II investigations to determine the site's cultural affiliation.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Kathleen Foley Winkler (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) and
Robert J. Jeske (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Oneota Mortuary Practices in Wisconsin: An Example from the Crescent Bay Hunt Club Site

Data concerning Oneota mortuary practices in southern Wisconsin are scarce and unsynthesized. Mortuary data from the Crescent Bay Hunt Club site will be used to discuss issues of Oneota health, nutrition, and social interactions. The site is a Developmental Horizon (A.D. 1250-1350) Oneota site on Lake Koshkonong in southwest Jefferson County, Wisconsin. The data from Crescent Bay will be compared to contemporary Oneota sites in southeast Wisconsin and northern Illinois.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Andrew C. Fortier (University of Illinois, Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program)
Prehistoric Landscaping Practices at the East St. Louis Mound Center: Evidence from the Northside Railyard/Pipeline Project

Archaeological and geomorphological investigations along the northern limits of the East St. Louis mound group have provided new insights on landscaping and engineering practices utilized be Mississippians. This paper will focus on the construction sequence of the plaza and mounds and various component parts of the ESTL ritual precinct. Ceramic and stratigraphic evidence suggests that the construction sequence in this area occurred over a relatively brief period during the Stirling phase. Engineering practices included the manipulation of different soil combinations to construct an anthropogenic plaza on which mounds, a storage compound, and other elements of the ritual precinct were erected.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

John G. Franzen (Hiawatha National Forest)
Wintering at Little Island Rock: Archaeological Evaluations of an Early 19th Century Fur Trade Site on Lake Superior, Grand Island, Michigan

Archaeological and historical research conducted by Hiawatha National Forest personnel in 2000-2002 identified the well-preserved remains if a c. 1820s trading post. The site includes cache pits, log wall remnants, clay fireplace features, pearlware, beads, 2 c. 1815 U.S. military buttons, wrought and cut nails, and a blade style gunflint. Site features are analyzed in relation to historical and archaeological accounts of other "wintering posts", and French-Canadian, Anglo-American, and Native American influences are discussed.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Jeremy B. Freeman and Ezekiel Z. Love
Historic Structural Analysis: Non-Intrusive Investigations of Site 12MA648

A pit (Feature 1) on the eastern side of the site grid and a concentrated area of brick deposits indicates that a structure was present at site 12MA648. The excavation of an exploratory trench (Trench 1) between this feature and brick deposit, however, was unable to uncover subsurface structural evidence. The results of a ground penetrating radar survey are compared to site depositional orientation in order to locate high probability locations of an historic structure.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Historic Archaeology)

Ian Fricker (ITARP), Eve A. Hargrave (ITARP), and
Kristin Hedman (ITARP)
Late Prehistoric Mortuary Behavior at the Hoxie Farm Site

Human remains recovered from identified burial features, test units, and feature contexts at the Hoxie Farm site (11Ck4) provide a unique perspective on the late prehistoric inhabitants of northern Illinois. Information from recent ITARP investigations and earlier excavations are combined to present a composite summary of the mortuary and biological characteristics of the Hoxie Farm burials. Comparisons will be drawn between Hoxie Farm and contemporaneous populations in the Upper Midwest. Implications for health and subsistence practices as well as cultural and temporal associations will be addressed.

 

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)



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Donald Gaff (Michigan State University)
Not a Lot of Pot: An Exposition Concerning a Rare Pottery Type in the Midwest

Excavations at the Aztalan site (47-JE-1) in Wisconsin in 2001 and 2002 produced sherds of a unique, net-impressed ceramic. In an effort to better understand such pottery, this paper will consider net-impressed ceramics from a broad perspective. The literature reveals that net-impressed pots represent a minority ware in many Late Woodland assemblages. Interestingly, the trait of net-impressions has a wide geographic distribution and appears to have enjoyed a limited period of use. After a discussion of the Aztalan pot and other similar ones, a relationship between this vessel type and maize will be proposed.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Joseph M. Galloy (ITARP-University of Illinois)
Detecting Prehistoric Deposits in East St. Louis

Historic period development within East St. Louis has both destroyed and preserved portions of the underlying Mississippian mound center. Cutting and filling have obscured the original topography, complicating the delineation of the site and identification of features such as mounds and habitation areas. These problems are examined using data from two railroad projects: the construction of the MetroLink light-rail line during the late 1990s and the proposed realignment of tracks within the Northside railyard for the NMRC project. Specific topics include the origin of anthropogenic fills detected within the railyard and of two rises at the corner of 7th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Paul S. Gardner (Archaeological Conservancy)
The Archaeological Conservancy in the Midwest

The Archaeological Conservancy is a national, nonprofit organization whose purpose is the permanent protection of the most significant archaeological sites in the nation. Since our founding in 1980, we have permanently preserved over 200 archaeological sites in 42 states. Generally we do this by acquiring title to the land containing the site and creating a perpetual archaeological preserve. We acquire sites by donation, bargain-sale-to-charity and by purchase at fair market price. We do so in order to insure that archaeological sites will be available to future generations for research, education and as landmarks of our national heritage.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

William Gustav Gartner
New Light on the Old Copper Complex

Forty-six Old Copper Complex sites were identified in central and northern Wisconsin through archival research, collector interviews, and pedestrian survey. Sixteen sites, including two workshops, are located in areas of the Wisconsin River drainage basin lacking "drift copper" deposits. More than 400 finished artifacts, 70 preforms and 500 copper scrap pieces exhibiting hammering, folding, and twisting have been fond at both workshops. Microscopic analyses of preserved wood and fibers suggest pollarding and indicate reed exploitation. Radiocarbon ages and neutron activation analyses are pending. The workshops likely represent nodes of manufacture and circulation embedded within a web of local production and exchange.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Daniel B. Goatley
Lithic Tool Use Patterns at the Moccasin Bluff Site and in Southwest Michigan

Lithic tools from the recent excavations at the Moccasin Bluff Site in southwest Michigan are used to examine site function as it occurred through time. Additional comparisons are made between the Moccasin Bluff material and other Early/Middle Woodland and Upper Mississippian occupations in the immediate river valley and the southern Lake Michigan region.

(Moccasin Bluff Revisted)

Lynne Goldstein (Michigan State University)
A History of Preservation at Aztalan: How Do Good Things Happen to Good Sites?

Since the mid-1800¹s, people have recognized the importance of the Aztalan site in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. While we might hope that such realization would result in site preservation, things are seldom so simple. Nonetheless, after a period of questionable preservation efforts, today the site is a state park with an interpreter, it has a new Master plan, and there are specific goals for future preservation efforts. How did this happen? What moves things forward, who must be included, and why do some "sure-fire" strategies fail miserably, while other questionable strategies succeed? Aztalan is used as a case study to examine these questions on a broader scale.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology (Symposium) 
Sean B. Dunham (Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group) and
John G. Franzen (Hiawatha National Forest)

Grand Island is a large island situated along the south shore of Lake Superior in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Hiawatha National Forest acquired Grand Island in 1990 and designated it a National Recreation Area. A Significant amount of archaeological research has been conducted on the island since that time revealing evidence for human use and occupation from the Late Archaic (ca. 4400 BP) to the present day. This session has brought together a range of scholars and professionals who have contributed to the archaeology of Grand Island and to understanding its cultural and environmental setting within the Great Lakes region.

N'omi Greber (Cleveland Museum of Natural History)
Earthwork Design, Polities, and Possible Trails in the Scioto River Drainage, Ohio

The ancient embankment walls found in the Scioto River drainage mark places that reflect civic, ceremonial-ritual, political and economic aspects of the groups of peoples who built them. Suggestions of polities associated with groups of earthworks in the Central Scioto region are discussed. Using mainly the iconography of enclosure ground plans, other polities are proposed within the drainage. A comparison of the locational pattern of sites containing true geometric square shaped enclosures and the locations of recorded eighteenth century journeys in the region is presented.

 

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Russ Green (Wisconsin Historical Society)
The Archaeological, Historical and Interpretive Value of the Bull Head Point Shipwreck Site, Sturgeon Bay

Rising just above the water's surface at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin's Bullhead Point, are three tangible reminders of the city's unique maritime past. Abandoned during the early twentieth century and long forgotten, the broken remains of the converted stone barges Empire State, Ida Corning and Oak Leaf now represent an archaeological and interpretive success story.

(Maritime Archaeology)

William Green (Beloit College)
Beloit College's 1926 Excavation of Seeberger Cave, Eastern Iowa

Paul Nesbitt, freshly graduated from Beloit College, excavated much of Seeberger Cave (13JK66) in 1926. Nesbitt later became Professor of Anthropology at Beloit and at the University of Alabama. He wrote a preliminary site report on Seeberger Cave, but the manuscript and the site were largely forgotten. The Logan Museum of Anthropology houses collections from Nesbitt's work. Preliminary examination of the collection shows much diagnostic Late Woodland material among the nearly 800 catalogued objects. An inventory of the collection will be completed soon, facilitating research. The material can contribute to knowledge of eastern Iowa rockshelter use, especially by Woodland peoples.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)



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Brad Hanson (Illinois State University)
Reconstructing Prehistoric Technology: An Experimental Study of Flaked Stone in the South Shore of Lake Superior

The stone tool manufacturing technology of Grand Island inhabitants, ranging from the Late Archaic through the Woodland periods, is dominated by the usage of quartzite cobbles as a raw material. Quartzite lithic materials are often found in conjunction with vast quantities of Fire Cracked Rock, indicating simultaneous or sequential heating and flint knapping activities in a single given location. This study explores the possibility that quartzite cobbles can be heated to facilitate flint knapping activities by both allowing access to the interior of the cobbles, as well as producing usable expedient flake tools.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Eve A. Hargrave (ITARP) and Kristin Hedman (ITARP-UIUC)
Mortuary Behavior from the East St. Louis Mound Center

Human remains representing nine individuals were recovered from Stirling phase components at the East St. Louis Mound Group site. Variation in mortuary treatment at this important site is suggested by five isolated primary interments associated with several mound and post pit contexts, as well as a probable secondary bundle burial, and isolated elements. The significance of these interments will be discussed in the context of Stirling phase mortuary behavior in the American Bottom.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Kristin Hedman (ITARP)
Incised Bone from the Hoxie Farm Site, Cook County, Illinois

A human parietal fragment decorated with an incised "cross-hatched" design was recovered from the late prehistoric Hoxie Farm site (11CK4) in Cook County, Illinois. Similar incised designs-some purely geometric or decorative, others depicting naturalistic or mythic figures-have been identified on bone, ceramic, and stone objects from other late prehistoric sites in the Midwest region. The refining temporal and cultural affiliation of the Hoxie Farm site will be addressed.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Melinda Hickman (Allied Archeology) and
Douglas Kullen (Allied Archeology)
Changes in Chert Use at the Ruby Robin Site, Northeast Illinois

The multicomponent Ruby Robin Site (11Wi2713) in Naperville, Illinois, produced a large quantity of lithic debitage and stone tools dating from the Early Archaic through Late Woodland Periods. Ongoing analysis of intrasite chert type distributions and artifact refit patterns has enabled researchers to identify temporally discrete lithic workshops despite overlapping, stratigraphically undifferentiated cultural deposits. Researchers have noted changes in chert usage over time, changes related to raw material availability and stone tool production processes.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)

Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest (Symposium)
Richard L. Fishel (Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, The University of Illinois) and Robert F. Sasso (University of Wisconsin-Parkside)

The waning fur trade and Native American removal from the Eastern United States during the early 1800s resulted in great cultural change for Native Americans and Euro-Americans alike. Native material culture of this time period in the Midwest is especially poorly understood from an archaeological perspective. Historic records indicate the presence of numerous early nineteenth century Native American sites and Euro-American trading sites, yet their identification and excavation continue to pose significant challenges for Midwestern archaeologists. Recent research should contribute toward a better definition of material culture to allow archaeologists to more easily identify sites from this period.

Andy Higgs (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.) and
Rochelle Lurie (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.)
Data Recovery from the Chen Site (11-Wi-2514), Will County, Illinois

The prehistoric Chen site is located along a northwest-facing bluff slope overlooking the East branch of the DuPage River, Will County, Illinois. Phase II and III excavations identified two distinct lithic artifact concentrations, areas A and B. Crude biface production using local Harmilda chert is the primary activity represented in Area A. Area B contains at least one dense lithic reduction area and a more diffuse lithic scatter. Data recovery from Chen site provides a detailed characterization of an upland site in the DuPage River settlement system during Late Archaic and perhaps the Early Woodland period.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)

Julie Zimmermann Holt (Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville), Cassandra Buskohl, Toshia Evans (ITARP), and Shannon Moore
SIUE Field School Excavations at the A.E. Harmon Site

The 2002 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville field school was conducted at the A.E. Harmon site (11MS136), located on the bluff above the American Bottom. Plowzone artifacts indicate the site was occupied from the Archaic period through Mississippian period. Six pit features and one house, a keyhole structure, were excavated. Ceramics and lithic artifacts from the house and associated pits indicates occupation during the Late Woodland Sponemann phase. Subsistence remains recovered include native cultigens, maize, nuts, wild plants, deer, and fish.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Meghan L. Howey (University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology)
The view from Inside: The impact of new research at the Cut River Mounds Site (20RO1), Houghton Lake, MI

The Cut River Mounds Site (20RO1) is located at the confluence of the Cut River and Houghton Lake, Michigan's largest inland lake. Based on its position in an area with critical resource access, exploratory work was undertaken at 20RO1 to assess its role in the regional organization of interior Michigan during the Late Prehistoric, an organization sustained by ritual aggregations at earthwork sites across the interior landscape. Interestingly, exploratory work shows the Cut River Mounds site was utilized from the Middle Woodland onward. However, the addition of ritual structures at the site coincided with intensive occupation during the Late Prehistoric, making this activity contemporary with the operation of the earthwork ritual system.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)



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Ellen Ireland (Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa), 
Robin M. Lillie (Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa), and Shirley J. Schermer (Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa)
The Gregg Collection: Archival Resources in Paleopathology

Dr. John B. Gregg donated to the University of Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist his vast collection of notes, correspondence, articles, books, slides, photographs, x-rays, films, and videos spanning his 30-year career. A retired physician from South Dakota, Dr. Gregg has had a long-time active interest in physical anthropology and paleopathology. The extensive listing of his published articles in the Human Paleopathology bibliography includes Dry Bone: Dakota Territory Reflected, a book on paleopathology of the Middle Missouri River region he authored with his wife Pauline Snyder Gregg. Through Gregg's involvement with work at numerous important sites in South Dakota, such as Crow Creek, osteological data from burials at these sites are documented in this collection. The archival materials provide valuable research and teaching resources for those interested in osteology and paleopathology in general.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

William R. Iseminger
Cahokia

Preservation efforts at the Cahokia site date back to the late 1800s, leading up to the establishment of Cahokia Mounds State Park in 1925. From that initial 144.4. acre tract, the state-owned property has expanded to over 2200 acres today. The history of these preservation efforts will be reviewed, focusing on recent efforts by individuals, groups and governmental bodies to preserve and protect more of this significant site and its important outliers.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area (Symposium)
Douglas Jackson (ITARP-UIUC)

The Hoxie Farm site (11CK4) is one of only a handful of Upper Mississippian sites that has been investigated in the Chicago region. In 2000, ITARP began a multi-year, IDOT funded investigation prompted by planned modifications to the I-80/294 Tollway. These investigations resulted in the exposure of over 2100 pit, postmold, burial, fortifications, and structural features within the narrow project corridor, including a small number of longhouse structures and a spatially isolated, densely settled fortified village comprised of small basin structures. Preliminary observations on various aspects of this important site will be presented.



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Douglas Jackson (ITARP-UIUC)
Introduction to the Hoxie Farm site and the ITARP Investigations

The Hoxie Farm site is an extensive, intensively occupied Upper Mississippian site in the Chicago Lake Plain region. The site is well known and was subject to previous professional investigations that were either salvage in nature or limited in extent. The multi-year ITARP project (2000-2003) provided the opportunity to conduct extensive excavations at this complex site resulting in the collection of a vast amount of material remains and subsistence evidence. A brief outline of the project and the results of the excavations are provided focusing on excavation strategy, site structure, feature distribution, and cultural components encountered.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Douglas Jackson and Mike Hargrave (ITARP-UIUC)
The Hoxie Farm Site Fortified Village: Archaeological and Geophysical Investigations

A significant aspect of the Hoxie Farm investigations was the excavation of a segment of a spatially segregated fortified village. Excavations revealed over 80 basin structures and numerous pit features surrounded by a palisade and a series of ditchworks. The excavation data on this village were supplemented by an electrical resistivity geophysical survey, ground-truthed through the use of soil probes, to trace out details of the southern portion of the village beyond the project limits. The village is estimated to have encompassed 4 ha. Details on the defensive works, the community plan, and the geophysical data are presented.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Teresa Johnsen (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Fabrics from the Northwest Mound at Aztalan: a Description and Interpretation

Three fragments of charred textiles and matting were reported in 1958 as a part of the crematorium in the Northwest Mound at Aztalan, a late prehistoric site in Southeastern Wisconsin. Analysis of the complete assemblage identified weft twined textiles with distinct structure types and fine to coarse fabric scale. Other fabrics are an interlaced or woven cord and bulrush matting, a small amount of tied very fine grass and a layer of unstructured fiber material. The amount of variation represented suggests a more extensive presences of fabrics and fiber materials associated with this multiple burial site.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

Donald W. JohnsonRonald C. Schirmer, and Clark A. Dobbs
Geophysics and Archaeology at the Silvernail Site (21GD03), Minnesota

The Silvernail site is one of the largest of the Oneota and Mississippian-related sites within the Red Wing Locality. However, much of the site has been destroyed and comparison of Silvernail to other sites has been difficult. Interdisciplinary investigations in 2002 combined geophysics, historic maps, aerial photography and archaeology, to delineate the internal structure of the Silvernail Village. The geophysical investigations provided the clearest habitation model of the village yet produced. Test excavations conducted in the summer of 2003 refined the interpretation of specific types of geophysical anomalies and allowed the authors to create a site-wide model of prehistoric settlement.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Richard B. Johnson (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.)
Phase III Excavations at the Cement Pond Site (11-Wi-2533), Will County, Illinois

In 2002, Phase III investigations conducted at the Cement Pond site revealed three small lithic reduction concentrations, a number of expedient tools and two Late Archaic bifaces. The site is located on top of the bluffs along the north side of the Des Plaines River. Almost all of the debitage and tools were of a chert type found within the Des Plaines valley. Data recovery from the Cement Pond Site will increase understanding of settlement patterns in the Des Plaines River Valley and prairie uplands to the north and west of the site during the Late Archaic period.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)

Dan Joyce (Kenosha Public Museum)
A Prehistoric Canoe from Lake Mary, Kenosha County, Wisconsin

Portions of a dugout canoe were recovered from a small lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Radiocarbon dating of the oak canoe yielded an assay of 1,850 +/- 60 rcybp (BETA 102612) or corresponding to the Early/Middle Woodland transition.

(Maritime Archaeology)

Dan Joyce (Kenosha Public Museum)
Ongoing Research on the Schaefer Mammoth Exploitation Site, Kenosha County, Wisconsin

The Schaefer site (47Kn252) in extreme southeastern Wisconsin was excavated in 1992 and 1993. Seventy-five percent of a woolly mammoth, Mammuthus?primigenius was recovered. The remains exhibited multiple cut and wedge marks that are interpreted as being cultural. A disarticulated bone pile deposited in a low energy environment indicates human interaction in the Late Pleistocene. Drifted wood specimens and macro fossils were also recovered from the site. Non-diagnostic stone tools were recovered from immediately beneath the left innominate. New analyses indicates that the animal was a male, 36 years of age at death. Thirteen AMS radiocarbon assays on highly purified bone collagen cluster between 12,290 and 12,570 radiocarbon years BP. Additionally, sixteen dates on wood specimens intimately associated with the bone yield a range of dates from 11,980 to 12,940 radiocarbon years BP, firmly bracketing the mammoth bone dates. Twenty-five specimens of wood have also been identified as to genera. Macrobotanical remains in the form of cones have also been identified. These preliminary macrobotanical data do not appear to support the traditional environment inferred for the woolly mammoth and points to a need for further study of the animals attribution to species.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)



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Kira E. Kaufmann (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Archaeological Geophysical Investigations at a Late Woodland Effigy Mound Site, Jefferson County, Wisconsin

Effigy mounds are an important part of the cultural and historic heritage of the people of Wisconsin that has been hindered by a relatively small amount of systematic investigation. Today, the sacred nature of these sites to Native American people and the damage to the sites from digging activities means that investigation of these sites for archaeological purposes should no longer be conducted as they have in the past. However, Effigy Mound sites can be investigated effectively using non-destructive methods, such as geophysical remote sensing. This type of research at Indian Mounds County Park (IMCP) has produced detailed electrical signatures that have been compared with other electrical studies, in an effort to make preliminary statements about the nature of the electronic signatures at this effigy mound site.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Alice B. Kehoe (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Cahokia Through Dhegiha Traditions

Francis La Flesche's Osage and Omaha texts can be applied to Cahokia data, providing interpretations ranging from likely to provocative. This presentation hypothesizes that because these Dhegiha were the closest major indigenous nations to the American Bottom at the late seventeenth century contact, they may have been descended from Cahokia and their priests may have transmitted Cahokian knowledge down to La Flesche's collaborators. Cahokian data discussed include the Keller figurine, Mound 72, "Woodhenge," the mounds around the principal plazas, and Ramey knives.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

John E. Kelly (Washington University)
The Processes of Preservation at the East St. Louis Mound Group and Environs

The rediscovery of the East St. Louis Mound group during the last decade has exemplified the fortuitous nature of our work as archaeologists in urban settings. As noted in a recent issue of the Archaeological Record the author stressed the difficult road ahead in preserving the legacy of the original inhabitants of the St. Louis region. Multiple processes have contributed to the present state of affairs in the case of what good be the second largest Mississippian center. This paper examines the processes of urbanization, legislation, and conservation as ones leading toward what will be a successful solution to a complex issue.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

John E. Kelly (Washington University) and James A. Brown (Northwestern University)
Cahokia's Mound 34 Revisited: The Context and Significance of the 1950s University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology and Gilcrease Institute Excavations

Although a relatively small earthen monument, Mound 34 was an integral part of the relocated East Plaza during the latter half of Cahokia's history as a Mississippian community. During the 1950s the University of Michigan's Museum of Anthropology (UMMA) and the Gilcrease Institute conducted excavations into Mound 34. Perhaps the most important discovery were the recovery of the engraved marine shell cup fragments. This past summer we continued our investigations to establish the context of the shell. This paper will discuss this past summer's work at Mound 34 in light of the earlier investigations.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Michael F. Kolb (Strata Morph Geoexploration, Inc.)
"Do You Know Don't You Wonder What's Going On Down Under You (CSN&Y 1970)": Stratigraphy, Geoarchaeological and Paleolandscapes in the Metro East Saint Louis Area

East St. Louis is located on the Mississippi River floodplain and is built on fill emplaced to raise the city above the floodwaters. This historic filling buried and preserved Mississippian earthworks and obscured the alluvial landscape morphology. Geoarchaeological investigations in this context are an exercise in stratigraphy. Numerous cores and trenches are therefore necessary to locate Mississippian fills and map the buried alluvial landscape. Results include a paleolandscape map that consists of landforms constructed when the Mississippi River occupied the Horseshoe Lake Paleomeander and more recent deposits/landforms formed during the flood that caused the abandonment of that older meander belt and identification of buried Mississippian earthworks.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Brad Koldehoff (ITARP)
On the River's Edge: Pre-Mississippian Land Use in the East St. Louis Area

Situated along the east bank of Mississippi River and hidden beneath the remnants of the once bustling commercial and transportation hub of East St. Louis sits the second largest Mississippian mound center in North America. In some locations, beneath the Mississippian deposits, are Woodland period deposits. These Woodland deposits, along with those from nearby sites, are summarized and are compared and contrasted with local Mississippian deposits to highlight changes in land use.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Brad Koldehoff (ITARP) and Donald L. Booth (ITARP)
Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the American Bottom Region

Recent site excavations in advance of highway construction and private development in the uplands east of Cahokia have yielded new and important information about Late Woodland and Mississippian settlement patterns, community organization, mortuary practices, and political organization. These new findings are reviewed and placed within a frontier framework. We argue that the uplands were a frontier zone-a peripheral area settled by expanding and/or reorganizing populations.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Ralph Koziarski (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Preliminary Report on Mammal Exploitation at the Bell Site (47-Wn-9)

The Bell Site, located in central Wisconsin's Winnebago County, has been identified as the Middle Historic period Grand Village of the Meskwaki. Recent research has also identified a potentially prehistoric component made manifest by the presence of shell-tempered ceramics at the site. In order to better understand the subsistence strategy of these prehistoric inhabitants, analysis of vertebrate remains from the site is in progress. Preliminary results of data on the site's mammal assemblage and questions raised by these results will be discussed.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)

Laura Kozuch (University of Illinois)
Dead in the Water: Shells & Shark Teeth from Janey B. Goode (11-S-1232)

A significant cache of marine shells was excavated from JBG in 2002 consisting mostly of horse conchs. The shells are anomalous in that; 1) they are a different species from that normally found from Mississippian sites, 2) the shells did not come from live-collected animals in marine waters, in other words the shells were "dead", and 3) the shells were worked in a patterned, yet uncharacteristic manner, indicating that the person was unfamiliar with shell working techniques. These data indicate that the shells were not traded via "normal" routes, and perhaps were obtained illegitimately. The shark teeth are from small requiem sharks. All of these remains, including marginella shells, originated in the Gulf of Mexico.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

Jeffery D. Kruchten (University of Illinois) and
Susan M. Alt (University of Illinois)
Villages and Farmsteads: The Making of Mississippian Cahokia

University of Illinois archaeologists have conducted extensive survey and excavations in the uplands adjacent to the American Bottom and Cahokia. Data from excavations at early Mississippian villages in this region have provided not only a better understanding of Cahokia, but also of the process of Mississippianization. Now, with recently excavated late-Lohmann/early-Stirling phase farmsteads associated with the Grossmann site, coupled with pedestrian survey around the Emerald site, we can provide a better understanding of the nature and timing of upland occupation within Greater Cahokia. Analyses of the recovered materials suggest that some of these people were new to the Cahokia region.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Steven Kuehn
A Grand River Phase Ceramic Assemblage from the Dambroski Site, An Oneota Village in Central Wisconsin

Recent excavation at the Dambroski site recovered a sizeable Grand River phase ceramic assemblage, consisting of nearly 250 vessels. The Dambroski site is a single component, late 13th century village, located in an area for which little specific information on Oneota culture has been available, until recently. Examination of the assemblage, focusing on vessel morphology, decorative elements, and other attributes, contributes important data on Oneota ceramics and ceramic changes in the region. As part of this study, comparisons are made with other Oneota ceramic assemblages in Wisconsin and elsewhere in the Upper Midwest.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Douglas Kullen (Allied Archeology)
Observations on Archaic and Woodland Projectile Point Types from the Hunter's Home and Ruby Robin sites in Naperville, Will County, Illinois

The projectile point stylistic chronology for northeast Illinois has relied upon types established in other parts of the Midwest. Recent mitigations at the Hunter's Home and Ruby Robin sites in Naperville, Illinois, produced hafted bifaces which ostensibly date from the Early Archaic through Late Woodland Periods. Formal and metric analyses indicate stylistic types known from elsewhere in the mid-continent, but previously undefined types have also been identified. While these new types so far lack relative or absolute dates, approximate dates are offered and researchers are encouraged to recognize these types in other Archaic and Woodland assemblages in northeast Illinois.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)



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Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia (Symposium)
Brad Koldehoff (ITARP) and Donald L. Booth (ITARP)

The uplands east of Cahokia, during the Woodland and Mississippian periods, witnessed cycles of settlement expansion and contraction. This pattern supports the notion that the uplands were a frontier zone-a peripheral area settled by expanding and/or reorganizing populations. Recent site excavations in advance of highway construction and private development in the uplands have yielded new and important information about settlement patterns, community organization, mortuary practices, and political organization. These new findings are summarized and provide new perspectives on late prehistoric developments in the American Bottom region.

Ann Lewis (University of Wisconsin-La Crosse)
A Comparative Study of Havana and Oneota Rolled Copper Beads from the Upper Midwest

Various forms of rolled copper beads are found within Havana and Oneota assemblages in the Midwest. In this study, seven different types of rolled copper bead types have been recognized including Tube, Spiral Rolled Tube, Flattened Tube, Barrel, Round, Cone, and Ring Beads. These copper beads are found in burial and habitation site contexts. By comparing the form of rolled copper beads from context representing these two cultures, it is possible discern culture-specific attributes. In considering the dimensions, quality of production, context, and quantity of beads the beads differ not only between assemblages but within each assemblage.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

Thomas Loebel (University of Illinois at Chicago), Daniel Amick (Loyola University Chicago), and Christopher Thurman (Loyola University Chicago)
Summary of Archaeological Investigations at the Hawk's Nest Clovis Site in Northeastern Illinois

Archaeological work between 1992 and 2002 included 39 surface collections and excavation of 143 square meters and 330 meters of backhoe profile. During this period, the surface yielded 1,202 artifacts while another 791 artifacts were produced from excavations. The accumulated assemblages contain 221 chipped-stone tools; 16 cores; 1752 waste flakes (including 23 channel flakes); and 4 pecked stones. Archaic and Woodland components are present, but Gainey-Clovis point preforms and scrapers predominate. Tillage has damaged these artifacts but not obliterated their spatial patterning. Discrete artifact clusters define complex yet discernable areas of labor and tool discard across this transitory hunting camp.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)

William A. Lovis (Michigan State University), Margaret B. Holman (Michigan State University), and Randolph E. Donahue (The University of Bradford)
Long Distance Logistic Mobility and Middle Archaic Foragers in Southern Lower Michigan

Accumulated data on the Middle Archaic of southern Michigan allows better integration of this information into regional models of settlement, subsistence, and mobility. Lowered Middle Holocene lake levels in the Michigan-Huron basin enlarged the land area of Michigan's southern peninsula by an order of magnitude. The presence of Middle Archaic sites on currently exposed elevations already confirms mobility patterns incorporating the margins of the interior uplands, at least. Recent radiocarbon dates and other data from sites in the central uplands of the peninsula reveals limited function logistic use of this environment, and suggests that long distance mobility systems were operative by at least 7000 BP or earlier. These data are incorporated into a re-evaluation of Middle Archaic mobility introducing the concept of long distance logistics, a mobility model consistent with that employed by Late Mesolithic foragers in Northern England.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Rochelle Lurie (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.)
A Compilation of Phase II and Phase III Reports for Archaic Period Sites in Northeastern Illinois

In order to assess the Archaic Period resource base for northeastern Illinois, phase II testing and mitigation reports or their equivalents have been compiled into an annotated bibliography. Over 150 sites are documented in this primarily "gray literature." Examination of site setting, native vegetation, and artifact assemblages highlights the importance of wetlands during all sub-periods of the Archaic. The presence of permanent or seasonal wetlands appears to be important in both forested and prairie settings. Extensive use of wetland resources at all time periods is a defining characteristic for cultures in the region.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)



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Robin Machiran
Preserving the Past for the Future: The East St. Louis Mound Group Preservation Initiative

The East St. Louis Mound Group was first described in 1811 as a group of about 45 mounds. At one time the group was believed to be destroyed by urbanization of the area. Recent work in East St. Louis has shown pre-contact cultural deposits still exist under the historic fill. Current investigations have documented at least one mound with four additional mounds under investigation. When this area became endangered by a highway project the efforts of several groups combined to preserve the area and begin work to turn the area into green space for future generations to enjoy and appreciate.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

Dirk Marcucci (Landmark Archaeology)
Revisiting Trout Point Lithics

Excavations at the Trout Point 1 (TP1) site by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1986 on Grand Island, Michigan focused on a large quartzite FCR "pavement" feature comprised of nearly 15,000 specimens dating to the Late Archaic. A unique hard hammer quartzite flake tool assemblage was associated with the site. The function of TP1 remains unclear; very few bones and no formal tools were recovered and the site sits 20 m above the water. As the project lithic analyst, I will review the methods and assumptions used in the 1986 replicative study and consider alternate interpretations of the assemblage.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Amy Marquardt (Mediapolis High School)
Absorbency and Thermal Conduction of Primitive Ceramic Replicas: Assessing Variation in Clay Sources and Tempering Materials Phase 3

This analysis of experimental archeology was designed to test the effects on water absorbency and thermal conduction in clay ceramics. Six tempers, clamshell, grass, grit, grog, limestone, and sand, and four clays were used to make twenty eight bowls. The control consisted of bowls made from each claytype without the addition of temper. To test for water absorbency, water was placed in the bowls and the absorbency rates were recorded. To test for thermal conduction, one hundred milliliter of water was placed in the bowls and heated to one hundred degrees Celsius for fifteen minutes. The water absorbency and thermal conduction test were repeated using tallow lined bowls.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

James A. Marshall
A Primary Source Map of Poverty Point

This researcher has made a map at 50 feet per inch of Poverty Point, a prehistoric enclosure in Northeast Louisiana. Dating from about 1200 B.C. the map is 8.5 feet by 12 feet. Drawn from about 4200 elevation readings taken by the author between 1980 and 1983, and about 5100 elevations taken by the Louisiana Highway Department in 1937, and in recent years by the Corps of Engineers and Jon Gibson totaling about 11,500 readings. One foot contour intervals are shown together with the bench marks established by this researcher, the Corps of Engineers, and Jon Gibson.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Terrance J. Martin (Illinois State Museum)
A Progress Report on Animal Remains from the Hoxie Farm Site (11CK4), a Late Prehistoric Village in Cook County, Illinois

ITARP investigations of the Hoxie Farm site in advance of the widening of I-80 in Cook County, Illinois, spanned four years (2000-2003) and disclosed house floors, hearths, refuse pits, fortification ditches, and sheet middens. The analysis of animal remains from these various contexts is underway and is providing information on local animal exploitation patterns at the Chicago area site. Technological and ceremonial uses of animals are also revealed by a diverse collection of modified animal remains, some of which occurred in caches.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Terrance J. Martin (Illinois State Museum)
Animal Remains from the 2002 Investigation of the Moccasin Bluff Site, Berrien County, Michigan

Michigan State University's 2002 archaeology field school at the Moccasin Bluff site provided the opportunity to implement modern recovery techniques at the southwestern Michigan site that was first systematically investigated by the University of Michigan in 1948. In addition to revisiting an area of late prehistoric sheet midden and refuse pits, the MSU Museum and Department of Anthropology personnel examined the spatial extent of the site. This included the initial testing of a river terrace adjacent to a large wetland habitat. Animal remains from these areas are summarized, and new insights are highlighted.

(Moccasin Bluff Revisted)

Terrance J. Martin (Illinois State Museum),
Alicia Welborn (Illinois State University), and
Matthew A. Humbrecht (Illinois State University)
Animal Exploitation on Grand Island: A Perspective from the Geta Odena Site

Illinois State University's 2001 and 2002 archaeology field schools at the Geta Odena site, co-sponsored by the Hiawatha National Forest, yielded more that 1,400 animal remains. The faunal assemblage was the subject of two senior theses at ISU. The findings reveal subsistence activities at the site during the Terminal Woodland and Early Historic occupations and provide a basis for considering seasonal scheduling and inter-site comparisons. These data and their cultural contexts are important for future investigations on the island and the nearby Upper Peninsula mainland.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Carol Mason
Jesuit Rings of Metals Other than Brass

Sites in the Midwest have reported Jesuit rings made of silver. When examined more closely and chemically tested, none of the rings has turned out to be silver. Some rings of white metal, however, have been recovered.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)

Richard P. Mason (Adjunct Researcher Religious Studies and Anthropology University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh)
The Cardy Site: A Fluted Point Camp in Door County, Wisconsin.

A surface collection by the Cardy family produced a lithic assemblage, over half of which is Moline chert. These artifacts have not been previously described. The purpose of this paper is to describe this assemblage and stress the importance of the site.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

David Mather (University of Minnesota)
Grand Mound and the Muskrat

Grand Mound and the other earthworks at the Smith site (21KC3) are the center of a series of mound groups and spring fishing villages along the Rainy River, at the US-Canadian border. Grand Mound is the largest earthwork in Minnesota, and the type site for Laurel ceramics. The site is currently under consideration as a National Historic Landmark. 1995, Mike Budak discovered that a ca. 200' linear ridge extending from the Grand Mound is in fact part of the earthwork. The discovery is interpreted here as symbolic of a muskrat, the Earth Diver of Algonquian cosmology.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Megan M. McCullen
Examining Subsistence During the Protohistoric Period via Phytolith Analysis

Phytolith analysis is a useful technique for understanding subsistence patterns in Native American communities during the contact period. Several wild and domesticated North American plants, along with European-introduced domesticates were studied comparatively for diagnostic phytoliths. While many of the domesticates produced diagnostic phytoliths, few of the wild plants analyzed did. Photographs and descriptions of diagnostic phytoliths will be available for examination. Analysis of archaeological phytolith samples confirms and compliments macrobotanical data from the Iliniwek Village site in northeastern Missouri. More phytolith data from other protohistoric sites is necessary to examine subsistence changes beyond the site level.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

Robert McCullough (Indiana University-Purdue University) and
Andrew White
Structure and development of the Late Prehistoric Strawtown enclosure and village in Central Indiana

The Strawtown vicinity, located about 25 miles north of Indianapolis, represents the overlapping peripheries of three distinct cultural traditions: later Woodland associated with the western Lake Erie Basin, Anderson Phase Fort Ancient, and Oneota. One of the sites at Strawtown is an extant enclosure with an exterior ditch. The development of the exterior ditch and enclosure reflects these changing peripheral alignments. The structure of the village within the enclosure also reflects its placement on a cultural borderland. The 2002 excavations indicated a changing morphology of the village and enclosure during at least three occupations between 1200 and 1425 A.D.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Katherine McMillan
Technological Change at the Paleoindian-Early Archaic Transition: A View from the Eastern Great Lakes

The Nettling Site (AdHj-1), located southwest of London, Ontario, Canada, is the largest single component Early Archaic site in southern Ontario. A detailed analysis of the formal, hafted end scrapers from the site was undertaken in order to assess claims regarding the changing nature of lithic production strategies during the Paleoindian-Archaic transition. A comparison of the Nettling end scrapers to similar Paleoindian forms, within the framework of the Organization of Technology, reveals the beginnings of a gradual technological shift that included differences in raw material procurement strategies, blank production and standardization, and post-detachment modification.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Philip G. Millhouse (University of Illinois)
Recent Excavations at the Mississippian John Chapman Site in the Apple River Valley of Northwestern Illinois

This past summer the UIUC archaeological field school conducted excavations at the Mississippian John Chapman site in the Lower Apple River Valley. The field school focused on the excavation of several single post basin structures and pit clusters. The material recovered indicates that people were actively mixing both traditional Woodland and new Mississippian ideas in their daily lives. The importance of the site and the unique opportunity it allows for the study of culture contact has inspired an effort to preserve the site for future research and public education.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Moccasin Bluff Revisted
Jodie O'Gorman (Michigan State University)

First excavated in 1948 by the University of Michigan, the Moccasin Bluff site in southwestern Michigan is a multi-component site best known for it's late prehistoric "village" occupation. In 2002 Michigan State University returned to the site to better document its extent and internal variation as well as to gather new kinds of data that were not available with the field methods fifty-some years prior. In this group of papers we present data from previously unexplored parts of the site and new data from a previously investigated area pertinent to the Late Woodland/Upper Mississippian occupation.

Charles R. Moffat (ITARP-American Bottom Survey Division) and
Brad Koldehoff (ITARP)
The Kane Village Site Revisited

Highway salvage excavations at the Kane Village Site (11MS52) in 1963 uncovered five structures and at least 97 pit features. Excavations for a proposed borrow pit in 1999 uncovered 25 pit features, expanding the southern limits of this blufftop site. Recent analysis of both the 1963 and 1999 collections document the presence of two Terminal Late Woodland (Lake Bluff Tradition) settlements: a Loyd phase hamlet represented by four structures and at least 104 pits, overlain by a Merrell phase homestead represented by one structure and at least 18 pits.

(Late Woodland and Mississippian Frontiers in the Uplands East of Cahokia)

Katy Mollerud (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Up North: Ramey Incised Ceramics at the Aztalan Site

The restricted set of decorations marking Ramey Incised vessels are argued to have symbolically represented the Mississippian world view. Ramey Incised ceramics, initially identified at the large Mississippian site of Cahokia, have subsequently been found at Late Prehistoric sites throughout the upper Midwest, including Aztalan in southeastern Wisconsin. Although a systematic analysis of Ramey symbolism was employed by Emerson for portions of the Cahokia collection, a similar examination of other Ramey Incised collections has not been undertaken. This paper outlines the initial stages of a comparable analysis of Ramey Incised ceramics from the Aztalan site.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)

Gregory Moore (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) and Jocelyn Boor (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Historic Foundations at Trimborn Farm

The 2003 field crew working at Trimborn Farm, in Greendale, WI, continued uncovering stone foundations of a building that may have burned down. The foundation construction consists of two different styles: exterior and interior. The building's function is probably agricultural. Other buildings on the site with similar construction were built during the 1850s to 1860s. The different styles of construction utilized local materials. This research investigates the functional purpose of using the two styles.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Historic Archaeology)

Stephen Mulholland (Duluth Archaeological Center), Don Menuey, and William R. Latady
The Thomas Site: A glimpse of the last 10,000 Years from northern Minnesota

The Thomas Site is a multi-component (10,000-300 B.P.) campsite at the mouth of the Vermilion River on Crane Lake in northern Minnesota. Each spring, from 1953-1976, the landowners collected artifacts when the lake receded and exposed the site. The assemblage is dominated by bifaces, including projectile points and tri-hedral adzes, suggesting hunting and heavy woodworking were important activities. Sherds, gunflints, glass beads and clay pipes indicate initial and terminal Woodland occupation and connections to the early fur trade era. Lithic material types suggest a wide-ranging interaction sphere.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)

Susan C. Mulholland (Duluth Archaeological Center)
Vein Quartz: Not Just for Woodland Anymore

Quartz is not usually considered a typical Paleoindian lithic material. Although fluted points of crystal quartz have been reported at several Clovis sites, vein quartz is more difficult to work. However, several examples of Late Paleoindian points of vein quartz are known from northern Minnesota and adjacent areas of Ontario. A consistent but low occurrence of this material is suggested.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

Cheryl Ann Munson
The Bone Bank Archaeological Project, Posey County, Indiana

The Bone Bank archaeological site was once famous for the Mississippian cemeteries that were eroding into the Wabash River. In 1828, the site was the locus of the first archaeological excavations in Indiana. The main component was a large village of the protohistoric Caborn-Welborn culture (A.D. 1400-1700) that was centered at the confluence of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers. Site surveys and test excavations in the 1990s revealed that buried midden deposits and pit features still survived. Rescue excavations in 2000-2001 were guided by geomorphic reconstruction. Analyzed data sets for stratigraphic comparison of early Caborn-Welborn phase village refuse include ceramics, fabric impressions, botanical remains, and radiocarbon dates (but not bones).

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Wendy Munson
Rhizobia Bacteria as Indicators of Prior Bean Cultivation

Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were domesticated in Mexico and Central America. Beans host several species of Rhizobia bacteria that live within their roots and metabolize atmospheric nitrogen that is used by the plant. During domestication, beans adapt to species of bacteria specific to local conditions. If these bacteria appear in areas to which they are not native, they were probably inadvertently transported by horticulturalists. When transported to new locations, beans may attract local Rhizobia. Rhizobia colonizing beans are frequently bean-specific. Detection of bean-specific bacteria in soil from archaeological sites, using microbiological methods, may indicate bean cultivation.

(Saturday Morning Poster Session)



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Linda Naunapper (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
"Bell Type 2" Ceramics Recovered from the Bell Site

The Bell site, first excavated professionally in the late 1950's by Dr. Warren Wittry of the University of Chicago, is a well-documented village occupation of the historic Mesquakie tribe. More recent salvage excavations at the site consisted of extensive data recovery conducted under the direction of Dr. Jeffrey Behm, University of Wisconsin-OshKosh, beginning in 1990 and finishing in 1998. Cultural materials recovered from Behm's excavations have substantially increased the data set from the Bell Site. Preliminary analysis and inventory of the complete aboriginal ceramics assemblage recovered during these excavations has recently been completed. As a result of this analysis, additional rim sherds of one particular ceramic type, "Bell Type 2" as originally defined by Wittry, have been identified which further support his designation of them as a distinctive "type", in terms of their unique technological and decorative attributes. "Bell Type 2" ceramics have been associated with the historic Potawatomi in the archaeological literature (Mason 1985; Quimby 1966; Wittry 1963). The goal of this poster is to present a visual display of the uniformity of "Bell Type 2" ceramics recovered from the Bell Site, comparing materials recovered from Behm's excavations with ceramics contained in various private collections.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity (Symposium)
Andrew C. Fortier (University of Illinois, Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program)

The New Mississippi River Crossing (NMRC) Project, sponsored by IDOT, entails the proposed construction of a new bridge across the Mississippi River joining metropolitan East St. Louis and St. Louis. In Illinois the project includes the construction of a new bridge and interstate, as well as the relocation of existing roads, utilities, and raillines. The proposed construction will impact portions of the buried East St. Louis Mound Center. This symposium will present new information about buried landforms, the ritual precinct at ESTL, and investigations at the Janey B. Goode site, a multi-component, multi-thousand feature site, associated with the Mound Center.

Brian D. Nicholls (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services)
A Middle Woodland Lithic Assemblage from the Beaudhuin Village Site (47DR432), Door County, Wisconsin

The Beaudhuin Village site represents a large Middle/Late Woodland occupation encompassing 9.3 acres bisected by STH 57 in Door County, Wisconsin. The site lies approximately 1380 meters east of the Green Bay shoreline at an elevation of 640 feet amsl .Phase II investigations at the site have produced a large collection of lithic materials including numerous side and corner-notched points similar to North Bay points recovered from other Middle Woodland sites on the Door Peninsula. This paper reviews the Beaudhuin Village site lithic materials and compares this assemblage to other reported North Bay Middle Woodland assemblages.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Jeremy L. Nienow (University of Minnesota)
Middle and Late Woodland Ceramic Analysis from 21HE210 and 21HE211, the Halsted Bay Peninsula on Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota

Excavations conducted in 2002 at two Woodland sites on the Halsted Bay Peninsula of Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota, resulted in the collection of over 5,000 artifacts, including over 1,300 ceramics. Preliminary ceramic analysis was conducted to give a range of useable data between the sites, and to identify likely cultural influences. Overall, the sites show a wide variety of temporally and spatially divergent influences from throughout the region. The initial results of this analysis are presented here, although the intent of this paper is to bring the Peninsula's entire artifact assemblage to the archaeological community's attention and invite future research.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

John Norder (Michigan State University)
Rock-art and the formation of early Algonquian landscapes

This paper presents findings from initial field research conducted during the summer of 2000 in the Lake of the Woods region, Ontario, and examines the ways in which rock-art may have been used in the construction of cultural landscapes. In particular, the approach used suggests the possibility of three site types that may have served to facilitate population movement and aggregation through the region for purposes of social and economic exchange as well as seasonal resource exploitation.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)



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Jodie O'Gorman (Michigan State University) and
Nakeesha Warner (Michigan State University)
Moccasin Bluff 2002: New Data and New Questions

Research objectives and contextual information regarding the 2002 excavation at Moccasin Bluff is summarized with new data presented on site structure and chronology. This paper provides the background information for the symposium.

(Moccasin Bluff Revisted)

Jodie O'Gorman (Michigan State University)
Revisiting Moccasin Bluff as "Agricultural Village"

Moccasin Bluff is often cited as an agricultural village and this interpretation of the site has been woven into our broader interpretations of Upper Mississippian adaptations. The evolution of the idea of Moccasin Bluff as agricultural village is discussed, the new data presented in the symposium are considered, and new directions for research in this area explored.

(Moccasin Bluff Revisted)

John M. O'Shea (Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan)
Bayes Boats: Estimating Confidence in the Identification of Historic Shipwrecks

Archaeology of the historic era offers the promise of identifying specific artifacts and people by name. Yet such identifications have an all or nothing quality and, once made, often take on a reality all their own. This is a common problem in the archaeology of shipwrecks; particularly when the vessel is no longer intact. This paper treats vessel identification as probabilistic, and employs Bayesian methods to estimate the confidence of a particular identification and to monitor change in confidence as new evidence is introduced. The approach is tested on a series of documented wreck sites from Lakes Huron and Superior.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Historic Archaeology)

 

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Sung Woo Park (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Technological Changes and Prehistoric Subsistence Shifts: An Example from the Zimmerman/Grand Village of the Kaskaskia Historic Site in the Upper Illinois River Valley

The focus of this paper is change in subsistence practices and lithic technology seen at the Zimmerman site (11Ls13) Upper Mississippian Langford and historic Danner (Illini) groups pre and post AD 1450. Changes in lithic use and function of tools used by the were directly related with increasing population and warfare. The data come from the Northwestern University excavations conducted between 1991-1995, including one Fisher phase feature (AD 1100), four Upper Mississippian Heally phase (AD 1257-1297) features of the Langford tradition, and two Middle Historic period (AD 1680-1690) Danner phase features as well as material from midden deposits.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Timothy R. Pauketat (University of Illinois)
A Compound Problem: Who Lived at East St. Louis?

Excavations at East St. Louis provide convincing evidence of a 12th century Mississippian elite space sometimes thought underrepresented in the archaeology of Cahokia proper. This evidence takes the form of pyramidal mounds, mixed domestic-nondomestic artifact assemblages, special granaries, a diversity of architectural forms, and modest palisade, fence, or compound walls from the 1990s "southside excavation". A late 12th century conflagration event is proposed that further buttresses the association of elite social life with the facilities of walled compounds. Highlighted are the political-economic implications of the co-occurrence of non-communal granaries and public-works/earthmoving projects at East St. Louis.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin (Symposium)
Patricia B. Richards (UWM- Historic Resource Management Services)

This symposium outlines 10 years of archaeological work conducted within the Wisconsin State Highway 57 transportation corridor on the Door Peninsula. Since 1993, archaeologists from UWM's Historic Resource Management Services (HRMS) and Marquette University's Center for Archaeology (CAR) have been working with WDOT personnel, tribal representatives, the Belgian-American community, and other interested stakeholders to identify, evaluate, and carry out mitigation plans on archaeological sites affected by the planned realignment. To date, 97 archaeological sites have been identified, 42 sites have been archaeologically tested and data recovery programs undertaken at six locales.

Cynthia L. Peterson (Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa)
Archaeology of the Meskwaki Fur Trade in Iowa, 1835-1843

Archaeological work has been conducted at three trading posts that exchanged goods with the Meskwakis. These year-round posts are located in eastern Iowa and were in use between 1835 and 1843. Two posts were operated by the American Fur Company; the third was independently operated. Although excavations were limited, artifact quantity from surface collections was great enough to yield preliminary information on Meskwaki/white trading practices. At the earliest post, typical "domestic" items were few; trade goods and faunal material predominated the assemblage. At the most recent post, mixtures of both categories of artifacts were found.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

David H. Peterson (Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College),
Joseph Neubauer Sr. (experimental metallurgist), and
Thomas Amble (President-Central States Archaeological Society)
Red Metal Poundings and the "Neubauer Process": Copper Culture Metallurgical Technology (Central States Archaeological Journal, Volume 50 Spring and Summer, 2003, Numbers 2 and 3)

A native copper ancient tool form manufacturing technology termed the "Neubauer Process" is the focus of this presentation. The "Neubauer Process" is the discovery, to date, from four years of experimentation by Joseph Neubauer, Sr. A sequential manufacturing process has been discovered which duplicates the technology utilized by the ancient copper culture. The process deals with the "flawed" natural characteristics of native copper, produces ingots, which retain silver inclusions, and final tool forms that occasionally exhibit surface bubbles. The sequence is applied with anneal-pound cycles with no smelting or melting required. All annealing heat is accomplished with white oak ember beds and all physical force vectors are by pounding, bending, chiseling or abrasion. The study applied identical manufacturing sequential steps to various Upper Michigan native copper specimens (copper, mohawkite, half-breeds and silver) and documents the results from specimen selection through anneal-pound cycles to final manufactured tool form.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Shaun Phillips and Jonathan Brown
Pattern Recognition GIS in Archaeology

One of the strengths of a GIS is its ability to find patterns in datasets too large for manual manipulation. The Cassasa site is a poorly stratified Middle and Late Woodland site in the Saginaw Valley of Michigan, but is generally agreed to possess obvious patterning in its feature distribution. Thus it seemed a good candidate for developing and testing a pattern recognition GIS, particularly for linear regularities. The resultant GIS would then be applicable to other sites in which spatial patterning was difficult to distinguish. The results at Cassasa revealed patterns, although not those originally recognized.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

Gina S. Powell (Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University) and Neal H. Lopinot (Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University)
In Search of Delaware Town, an Early Nineteenth Century Delaware Settlement in Southwest Missouri

Between 1821 and 1831, around two thousand Delaware Indians lived in the James River Valley south of Springfield, Missouri. At least two trading posts were erected within or near this settlement and this area is still known as "Delaware Town." Three summer field schools, under the auspices of the Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, have explored a significant portion of Delaware Town. We have succeeded in locating several loci of artifacts, which might represent a few of the households clusters and homesteads strung along the river. The results of our field and historical research will be discussed during the symposium.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Matthew P. Purtill (Gray & Pape, Inc.)
From Beginning to End: Key Findings from Recent CRM Excavations along the Ohio River in Lawrence and Scioto Counties, Ohio

Several recent CRM projects along the Ohio River in Lawrence and Scioto counties, Ohio, have produced a wealth of new data regarding southern Ohio's prehistoric cultural sequence. Because Gray & Pape employed similar research and field protocols to each project, archaeological results are easily compared and integrated. This paper provides a brief overview of key project findings and discusses their implications to regional cultural/temporal histories.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)



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Maria Raviele (Michigan State University)
Functional Variation of Lithic Debitage at the Schultz Site, Saginaw County, Michigan

The Schultz site is a stratified Early through Late Woodland occupation in Saginaw County, Michigan. In part due to fluctuating environment, resource extraction varied widely through time. Modifications in tool manufacture are often seen with a change in subsistence. Changing hunter gatherer subsistence patterns are examined through an analysis of lithic debitage, in which the use of exotic raw materials, heat treating, and soft hammer percussion are specifically examined within the context of space and time. As the transition to horticulture is approached, greater heat treating of material and the use of soft hammer percussion is observed.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

Nicholas M. Reseburg (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services)
Lithics, Lithics, Everywhere: A Chipped Stone Workshop on the Door Peninsula, Wisconsin

The Holdorf I Site (47DR381) represents a prehistoric campsite/lithic workshop of unknown affiliation. The site extends over a quarter of an acre on the summit of an upland knoll. Although the site has yet to be mitigated, Phase II investigations have produced in excess of 42, 000 pieces of lithic debitage as well as evidence of postmolds and pit features. Although no ceramics have been recovered, an associated triangular projectile point suggests that site deposits represent a Late Prehistoric occupation. This assignment is supported by a radiocarbon date of cal A.D. 710-1030. This paper outlines the work completed to date.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Toni A. Revane (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services) and
John D. Richards (UWM- Historic Resource Management Services)
Expecting the Unexpected: Archaeological Investigations at the Heyrman I site (47DR243), Door County, Wisconsin

The Heyrman I site (47DR243) was identified during a 1994 UWM survey. Phase II investigations confirmed the presence of spatially segregated, intact Late Archaic and Late Woodland components. Data recovery operations have produced a large artifact inventory primarily recovered from the upper 50 cm of the sandy ridge that harbors the site. However, during the 2002 field season, a deeply buried feature containing non-diagnostic lithic debitage was recovered associated with a buried surface 150-170 cm below the existing ground surface. AMS dating of organics recovered from this surface produced a radiocarbon date of cal 12, 820-11, 930 BP.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

John D. Richards (UWM- Historic Resource Management Services)
Transportation Archaeology on the Door Peninsula: An Overview

STH 57 winds for 75 miles through the Door Peninsula in Northeast Wisconsin. Much of the southern half of the route follows the Green Bay shoreline traversing an archaeological landscape rich in prehistoric and historic resources recording 12, 000 years of human use of the region. Today, the highway is the primary route into and out of the Door Peninsula's popular resort country and has become inadequate to safely carry current traffic loads. Consequently, WisDOT plans to improve and realign portions of STH 57. Associated archaeological investigations have provided an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the archaeological record of northeastern Wisconsin.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)

Patricia B. Richards (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services)
After the Great Fire: Archaeology at the Vandermissen Brickworks (47DR388)

This paper details the results of archaeological investigations at the Vandermissen Brickworks site (47DR388) in the area of planned improvements to STH 57 in Door County, Wisconsin. Although much of the site exhibits a shallow plowzone, intact features relating to hand-brick making are present. The features defined at the site provide evidence of four different types of brick making activities, including: clamps, processing, mining, and culling. This paper also places the Vandermissen Brickworks, a short term, special purpose cottage industry, within the greater context of the distinctive Belgian settlement of the Door Peninsula.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)



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Phillip Salkin (Archaeological Consulting and Services)
Interpretation of Pike's Bay Scow, Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior

The expansion of a Marina on Chequamegon Bay let to mitigation efforts regarding the removal of a wooden scow provisionally dated circa 1900-1910. The flat bottomed scows were the general purpose work-horses of the Great Lakes and this one is unusual in that it shows features of both earlier sailing scows and later deck scows that were towed behind steam tugs. This paper discusses the scow and a public interpretation program that was developed as part of mitigation.

(Maritime Archaeology)

Robert J. Salzer (Beloit College)
Cultural Landscape Management

Cultural landscape theory has been developed by cultural geographers. It stipulates that such built landscapes are dynamic: they are created by people and they reproduce values, attitudes and beliefs with each new generation and with each new immigrant. In our efforts to manage cultural resources, we must recognize that modern peoples are surrounded by relicts of former cultural landscapes. Heightening awareness of such ruins in the minds of contemporary people is, perhaps, the best way to ensure the survival of the past in the present and the future because it engenders a sense of stewardship among us all. This paper explores the strategies and on-going accomplishments of such an approach to cultural resource management.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

Robert F. Sasso (University of Wisconsin-Parkside) and
Dan Joyce (Kenosha Public Museum)
Seeking the Archaeological Traces of the Early Nineteenth Century Potawatomi in Southeastern Wisconsin

The historical and archaeological literature lists a multitude of nineteenth century Potawatomi sites of a variety of types and functions within southeastern Wisconsin. Nevertheless, recent efforts to locate and study such sites have proven challenging. The authors have examined several reported Potawatomi sites over the past decade, including such habitations as Kenozia Village, Simmons Island, Markwank, Old Schoolhouse, and Skunk Grove, and relict cornfields at Raymond Center, Camp Thomas, and Carroll College. Archaeological remains of Potawatomi activity here typically have been few and far between, making the identification of Potawatomi material culture difficult for this critical period of culture change.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Robert F. Sasso (University of Wisconsin-Parkside), Cheri L. Price (University of Wisconsin-Parkside), and Laura D. Kristiansen (University of Wisconsin-Parkside)
Artifact Distributions at the Vieau Fur Trade Post Site, Franksville, Racine County, Wisconsin

The Vieau site (47Ra90) at Franksville, Wisconsin, was an important fur trading post occupied circa 1820-1837. Jacques, Jr., and Louis Vieau conducted trade with the Potawatomi who inhabited a sizeable village nearby. Researchers from UW-Parkside and the Kenosha Public Museum conducted metal detector surveys of portions of the Vieau site during 2002-2003, recovering a variety of materials from roughly 200 different locations, including ceramics, glass, metal, faunal, and lithic artifacts. The analysis and detailed mapping of recovered artifacts will facilitate decisions regarding future excavations aimed at relocating remains of the trading and other buildings related to the Vieau post.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

Jennifer Schaller
A Preliminary Evaluation of Upper Mississippian Structural Features at the Hoxie Farm Site in the Chicago Area

Two distinct, spatially discrete, Upper Mississippian structural feature types were encountered during the Hoxie Farm site investigations. A small number of structures are represented by the oval longhouse structure type, similar to those found on other Mississippian sites in the Chicago area. The second structure type is restricted to the fortified village and is represented by approximately 80 oval to circular basin structures. Basin structures have not been previously reported from other Chicago area Upper Mississippian sites. Details, preliminary analyses, and inter-site comparisons of these two structure types will be presented.

(The ITARP Hoxie Farm Site Investigations: Preliminary Observations on a Complex, Late Prehistoric Site in the Chicago Area)

Sissel Schroeder (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Kenneth Ritchie (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Edward Swanson (University of Wisconsin-Madison), and Lynnette Kleinsasser (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Structure Abandonment and Conflagrations at the Skare Site

Excavations at the Skare Site in the summer, 2003, focused on a pithouse dating to the 12th or 13th century that had been burned following a planned abandonment of the structure. An electromagnetic survey of the entire Skare site, in conjunction with limited soil probe investigations of subsurface features, provides a spatial context for consideration of the formation of archaeological phenomena and the history of use of the site.

(Sunday Morning General Session: Woodland/Mississippian)

Janet Silbernagle (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
What Were Their Gardens Like? The Sequence of Cultivation on Grand Island within a Plant Husbandry Framework

In the 1990s I studied the patterns and sequences of Ojibwe and Euro-American cultivation on Grand Island. Spatial interpretations of the island's gardens and plant use were drawn from documentary, ethnohistoric, and archaeobotanical sources. Certain areas, particularly near the south shore of the island, received repeated cultural use over multiple periods in the island's history. Several distinctive cultural groups occupied these areas at different times, each employing agricultural practices in varying degrees of intensity. Today I apply Dolittle's classification of plant husbandry to the various forms and patterns of gathering and gardening that occurred on Grand Island.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Mary Simon (University of Illinois-Champaign)
Not Your Everyday Garbage: Plant Remains from Ritual Storage Structures at East St. Louis

The Stirling phase occupation at East St. Louis includes a series of small, rectangular, wall post structures that have been interpreted as storage facilities associated with Mississippian rituals of renewal. Because many of these structures are burned, we expect that plant residues from floor and internal feature contexts will reflect original function rather than randomly disposed garbage. In fact, these plant assemblages do not display the "typical" Mississippian plant profiles, but rather comprise a unique subset, consistent with interpretation as ritual, non-habitation buildings. Similar structures present in the ritual precinct at the Sponemann site as well as at the Cahokia ICT II substantiate this interpretation.

(The New Mississippi River Crossing Project: University of Illinois Investigation in the East St. Louis Mound Center and Vicinity)

James M. Skibo (Illinois State University)
Gete Odena: Post-Contact Occupation on Williams Landing

Two seasons of excavation have now been completed at Gete Odena, the Late Woodland/Historic Period site near William's Landing. I discuss two significant findings from the post-contact period. The first is the discovery of 6 pits analyzed through a performance -based analysis and thought to be used in hide processing. The second significant finding is the identification of the occupation surfaces associated with the late 18th and early 19th century component. Analysis of the material is ongoing but thus far it has provided an interesting look at the late prehistoric/early historic Native American occupation of the island.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Sam Snell (University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee)
GIS: Not just for research anymore

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become increasingly useful in archaeological applications. For the most part GIS has been used as a tool of analysis in dealing with applications such as landscapes, predictive models, and in the use of creating detailed maps for final reports. This paper addresses the possibilities of how a GIS can be used as both a research tool and as a tool for public outreach and education. This paper details what data the GIS can include and what features can be utilized using that data.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Archaeological Techniques)

Nichole E. Sorensen (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Conservation of Historic Wrought Iron

Within the past few decades, some archaeologists have shifted their primary focus from prehistoric to historic archaeology. This growing trend presents new challenges regarding how to preserve these new classes of artifacts, including the removal of rust which overtakes the artifact, making identification much more difficult. This paper discusses the results of various tests that were conducted to find the best method of rust removal from wrought iron, including Coca Cola and electrolysis. Nails taken from the Second Fort Crawford (47Cr247) site in Prairie du Chien, WI were used as "test" artifacts. The paper describes the tests and their results.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Historic Archaeology)

Kathleen Stahlmann and William Iseminger
Preservation of the Sugarloaf Mound Complex in Madison County, Illinois

The Sugarload Mound on the bluffs of the Mississippi Valley, northeast of Cahokia Mounds, has historically been a prominent landmark in the St. Louis region. The mound has especially attracted attention because of its incorporation as part of an earthwork comprising a possible bird effigy. Interest in the site and efforts begun by a state legislator and a grant from the state led to the purchase and successful preservation of Sugarloaf Mound by the State of Illinois. This paper will focus on the history of the region, the resulting archaeological investigations, and possible future of the site and surrounding area.

(Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003)

Michael Strezewski (Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne)
Prehistoric Warfare at the Fisher Site, Will County, Illinois

The south-southwest mound at the Fisher site was excavated by George Langford in 1928 but never published. Recent re-examination of the notes has revealed the presence of a large pit containing disarticulated and partially articulated human remains. Scalpings and/or celt wounds on nearly all of the skulls available for study indicate a probable massacre of at least 40 individuals. Radiocarbon and fluorine assays date the massacre to between AD 1250 and 1275, in association with the Fisher/Langford occupation of the site. This event occurred during a period of cultural upheaval in the greater Illinois region.

(Saturday Morning General Session: Mississippian/Oneota)

Jonathon M. Stroik (UWM-Historic Resource Management Services)
Data Recovery at the Delfosse/Allard site (47KE9/31)

The Delfosse/Allard site (47KE9/31) is a 37.5 acre, multicomponent campsite/village bisected by STH 57. A conical mound and garden beds were present in 1906. However, a 1978-79 survey found that these features had been subsequently destroyed. Although the site has produced evidence of Paleoindian through Oneota occupation, HRMS data recovery operations were restricted to an area containing Late Woodland deposits. Excavated contexts including both Hein's Creek and Point Sauble Collared vessels suggest contemporaneity between producers of these wares. A calibrated AMS date of AD 1030-1230 was obtained from charred residue from the interior of a Point Sauble Collared rimsherd.

(A Peninsular Point of View: Archaeology of the STH 57 Transportation Corridor in Brown, Door, and Kewaunee Counties, Wisconsin)



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Matthew M. Thomas (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
From Kettle Sugar to Commercial Syrup: The Evolution of the Grand Island Sugarbush

Maple sugaring has been an important springtime activity throughout the historical occupation of Lake Superior's Grand Island. Use of the sugarbush began with the period of Ojibwe settlement, continuing through initial white settlement and 20th century resort development and eventually large-scale commercial maple syrup production before abandonment in the 1950s. This paper presents the results of recent historical and archaeological investigations of the Grand Island sugarbush, examining its spatial, architectural, and technological evolution, ending with an interpretation of the present material remains and sugarbush features within historic context of both the sugarbush and the island as a whole.

(Grand Island: 15 Years of Archaeology)

Clare Tolmie (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.)
Catchment Analyses for the Archaic Period Chen and Cement Pond Sites

Site location is determined by variety of factors including the availability food and manufacturing resources. Site catchment analysis for the Archaic Period Chen and Cement Pond sites provides context from which inferences can be made about site placement, function, and subsistence. This context is particularly important since floral and faunal remains are lacking at both sites. Previous studies have demonstrated a shift in emphasis from uplands to river valley settings during the Archaic. This paper expands on such data by considering the resources available at these two sites.

(Archaic and Woodland Site Research in Northeast Illinois)

Trend, Tradition, and Innovation in Site Preservation in the Midwest 2003 (Symposium)
John Kelly (Washington University)

Archaeology by its very nature is a destructive discipline, although efforts by the public, not necessarily, archaeologists, to preserve Indigenous and other Euro-american sites extends back into the nineteenth century. The legislation of the last half-century has often resulted not in the protection and preservation of sites but in their destruction. In some instances the unfortunate has led to greater efforts at preservation. The focus of this session is to place these efforts into historical perspective and discuss efforts especially within the last decade to assure that the legacy left by the Midwest's first inhabitants are protected not simply as cultural resources but as places on the landscape for all to protect and respect.



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Mark J. Wagner (Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale)
Culture Contact Processes at the Windrose Site, an early Nineteenth Century Potawatomi Settlement in Northeastern Illinois

The Windrose site (11Ka336) represents the partial remains of Little Rock Village, a Potawatomi settlement dating to the very end (ca. 1800-1835) of the politically independent Native American occupation of Illinois. Archaeological data from the site indicate that the Potawatomi made active choices regarding the types of Euro-American cultural influence they would accept. Manufactured goods compatible with traditional lifeways were accepted and utilized while those symbolically associated with acculturation were recognized and rejected. The continued manufacture of stone pipes also may signal Potawatomi resistance to American domination through the strengthening of traditional practices in which tobacco-smoking acted as a facilitator.

(Hidden in Plain Sight: Early Nineteenth Century Native American Sites and Material Culture in the Midwest)

Matthew Warwick (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
A Diachronic Study of Animal Exploitation at Aztalan

The Aztalan site, found in southeastern Wisconsin, has long intrigued archaeologists. The site served as the location of a Late Woodland settlement and a subsequent Late Woodland / Middle Mississippian village. This paper presents results from a recent study that compared animal remains from these occupations. Dietary makeup and deer use patterns are considered.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Late Prehistoric/Historic)

Nikki A. Waters (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Tamara Reece,
Randal Wooldridge, and Joel Ruprecht
Looking Below the Surface: Testing the Validity of Non-Extant Rockshelter Identifications

When is a rockshelter really a rockshelter, and not just a cliff-line pile of dirt and rocks? This seemingly innocuous question was key to the research conducted by the Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne Archaeological Survey during the summer of 2003. As part of a multi-year research project conducted with the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Hoosier National Forest, Survey personnel used a 10 cm bucket auger to gather data relevant to testing this question from four potentially non-extant rockshelter sites within the Hoosier National Forest. These data produced startling results you'll just have to see for yourself.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

Robert J. Watson (Great Lakes Archaeological Research Center) and
Brian D. Nicholls (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
The Wisconsin Archeological Society - 1903-2003

The Wisconsin Archeological Society is celebrating over 100 years of contributions to the understanding and advancement of archaeology in Wisconsin. Formerly known as the Archeological Section of the Wisconsin Natural History Society, the Wisconsin Archeological Society was formally incorporated in 1903. Since its inception, the Society has played a leading role in the dissemination of information pertaining to Wisconsin's rich archaeological past. This presentation highlights the history of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, including its historical roots, role in exploration and research, preservation efforts, and publication record.

(Saturday Afternoon Poster Session)

Daniel Wendt
Cochrane Chert and Cedar Valley Chert, The Same or Different

Distinctive yellow and brown, jasper-like silicates including Cochrane Chert and Cedar Valley Chert were utilized for pre contact stone tool manufacture in Western Wisconsin and Southern Minnesota. The geological origin of these materials is problematic as they typically occur as residual cherts. A new source area has been identified in Dunn and Pierce Counties in Wisconsin. Surface iron deposits, presumably from the Cretaceous Period, Windrow Formation, are common to the known source areas in Wisconsin and Minnesota. The cherts and iron deposits may have a common origin as ground water precipitates, infiltrating and replacing near surface sediments.

(Saturday Afternoon General Session: Lithics)

What's in a Name? Middle and Late Archaic Lithics (Roundtable)
Rochelle Lurie (Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Inc.) and
Steven Kuehn

In the Upper Midwest, few Archaic Period sites contain a suite of projectile points found in association with material suitable for radiocarbon dating, assigning site components to a Archaic subperiod is often based on a single named projectile point/knife dated elsewhere in the Eastern United States. Given the variation within and overlapping characteristics between many defined point types, putting a name to a point is often difficult. This is particularly true for the Middle Archaic, where a plethora of regional designations are employed. In this roundtable, projectile point collections (including some type specimens) from Archaic Period sites in northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, western Michigan, northern Indiana, and eastern Iowa will be available for examination and discussion.

Hank Whipple (Wisconsin Historical Society)
The Wreck of the Christina Nilson, Door County, Wisconsin

This paper describes the wreck of three masted schooner, the Christina Nilson, that is a well preserved representative of Great Lakes wooden sailing craft of the late 19th century. The Door Peninsula shipwreck was recently placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

(Maritime Archaeology)

Daniel McGuire Winkler (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
The Middle Archaic Occupation at the Carcajou Point Site, Lake Koshkonong, Jefferson County, Wisconsin

Carcajou Point is well known as an Oneota site along the shore of Lake Koshkonong, in Southeastern Wisconsin. Recent excavations have revealed buried Middle Archaic occupations on a sandy outwash landform on the northern portion of the site. Material recovered includes a large lithic debitage and stone tool assemblage, as well as pit and hearth features associated with the Middle Archaic occupations. The material is compared to other Middle Archaic sites in the region, and its implications for Middle Archaic settlement patterns in the region are discussed.

(Sunday Morning General Session: PaleoIndian/Archaic)